Andrew Carnegie’s decision to support library construction developed out from his own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years in the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed via the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but needed to stop after only 36 months. The rapid industrialization of your textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father out of business. Subsequently, the family sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Andrew Carnegie’s decision to support library construction developed out from his own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years in the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed via the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.www.essaycapitals.com Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but needed to stop after only 36 months. The rapid industrialization of your textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father out of business. Subsequently, the family sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to consult with work, his learning failed to end. Right after a year within a textile factory, he became a messenger boy to the local telegraph company. Most of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library for any young worker who wished to borrow an ebook. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows in which the light of knowledge streamed. In 1853, once the colonel’s representatives attempted to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter towards editor on the Pittsburgh Dispatch defending an appropriate of all the working boys have fun with the pleasures of your library. More valuable, he resolved that, should he ever be wealthy, he would make similar opportunities suitable to other poor workers.
Covering the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune which will enable him to fulfill that pledge. During his years to be a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the ability of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts while using Pennsylvania Railroad, where he went to work on age 18. During his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent on the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in a lot of other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to manage the Keystone Bridge Company, this was successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. From the 1870s he was focusing on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.
Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Prior to selling Carnegie Steel he had begun to consider how to handle his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, whereby he stated that wealthy men should do without extravagance, provide moderately for their dependents, and distribute most of their riches to help the welfare and happiness of the common man–aided by the consideration to aid only those would you help themselves. The Perfect Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields to which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to add in gifts that promoted scientific research, the overall spread of knowledge, and then the promotion of world peace. Several of these organizations continue to keep this present day: the Carnegie Corporation in New York, as an example, helps support Sesame Street.
Due to his background, Carnegie was particularly focused on public libraries. At some time he stated a library was the perfect gift to obtain a community, simply because it gave people a chance to improve themselves. His confidence was in accordance with the results of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, such as, a library distributed by Enoch Pratt was utilised by 37,000 people in one full year. Carnegie thought that the relatively small number of public library patrons were of more value to their community as opposed to masses who chose to not ever benefit from the library.
Carnegie divided his donations to libraries straight into the retail and wholesale periods. Throughout the retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the usa. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities which includes private pools in addition to libraries. In your years after 1896, termed as a wholesale period, Carnegie no longer supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities who had limited admittance to cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were for under $10,000. Although almost all the towns receiving gifts were within the Midwest, altogether 46 states taken advantage of Carnegie’s plan.
Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction right after a report produced to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 belonging to the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report figured that being really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings appeared to be provided, however right now it was time to staff them with professionals who would stimulate active, efficient libraries within their communities. Libraries already promised continued to get built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was looked to library education.
When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes through which he believed. His gifts to varied charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as an approach to improve people’s lives, and libraries provided just one of his main tools to assist you to Americans develop a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both when he was young, and later on? 2. Exactely how much formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his need for books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people must do because of their money? Why did he imagine that? Do you really agree? 4. How did supporting libraries fit with Carnegie’s past and his awesome beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, Around the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).